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The domain-naming system essentially allows us to refer to computer resources in a more meaningful manner, such as www.cnn.com and email@example.com. In the first example, the name given is referred to as a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
Addressing in TCP/IP, which falls in the OSI network layer, uses what is known as a 32-bit IP address. The phrase 32-bit means that 4 bytes are used to hold the data. The addresses usually appear to users in dotted-decimal form, such as 22.214.171.124.
The two most common transport-layer protocols in use today include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) found in TCP/IP and SPX (Sequential Packet Exchange) found in IPX/SPX. The corresponding protocol-stack network-layer protocols are IP (Internet Protocol) and IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange).
After reviewing descriptions of each layer an investigator will realize that when someone refers to a switch that is designed to operate at layer 2 in an Ethernet network, that person is saying that network traffic is switched using MAC address headers. The same conversation may identify the switch as operating at layer 3, in [...]