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The spread of electronics production to Asia in the period 1960–1980 was a very important factor in East Asia becoming a major production hub in the PC industry. There were two reasons for this. First, East Asia developed the capabilities that would make it the logical place for PC companies to set up production, source [...]
There were exceptions, such as DEC, which produced in Europe most of what it sold there. There were also many alliances across countries, such as Fujitsu with Amdahl and ICL, NEC with Honeywell and Groupe Bull, and Hitachi with Olivetti.
The central computing era saw a gradual trend toward globalization, mostly through IBM’s activities. International Business Machines, Inc., was aptly named, as it was international in focus even before the computer was invented.
This agreement created a market opportunity that was filled by the various service bureaus such as EDS and CSC. Throughout the 1970s, the Justice Department continued to pursue antitrust action against IBM.
The mainframe industry remained vertically integrated for the most part, with IBM and a few other large companies controlling a large share of the total market. But the development of a modular, standardized dominant platform along with the growth of plug-compatible systems and peripherals man ufacturers and independent software developers foreshadowed the ultimate restructuring of [...]