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With the system running, the investigator is usually limited to collecting data such as the Secure Audit Log data, which has been logged onto remote devices such as syslog servers. Most network appliance and router devices do provide a physical configuration port (usually a serial connection) from which to run a terminal session.
A third memory component in Cisco routers, the Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM), contains the startup configuration files. The BootROM, much like the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and BIOS of a personal computer, contains code for power-on self-test (POST), IOS loading, and so forth.
Volatile data in routers and network appliances such as dedicated firewalls is very similar to that of a personal computer with one exception—a physical hard disk may not be present. All data is likely to be located in some type of Random Access Memory (RAM) or Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM).